Conceptual processing in Chinese-English bilinguals: an fMRI study of cross-language conceptual priming.

In recent years, functional neuroimaging and cortical stimulation methods have been used to explore neural organization of the bilingual brain, and one of the areas that has received considerable attention is the bilingual conceptual system. While some studies have provided evidence for distinct, non-overlapping representations between the first language (L1) and the second language (L2) (e.g., Kim, Relkin, Lee, & Hirsch, 1997), other studies have provided support for different, yet overlapping representations between the two conceptual systems (e.g., Illes et al., 1999; Klein, Milner, Zatorre, Meyer, & Evans, 1995; Klein, Milner, Zatorre, Zhao, & Nikelski, 1999). Factors such as age of L2 acquisition (e.g., Chee, Hon, Lee, & Soon, 2001), L2 proficiency (e.g., Perani et al., 1998), L1 literacy experience (e.g., Wang, Koda, & Perfetti, 2003), and L1 and L2 similarity (e.g., Gandour et al., 2000) have been proposed to explain these discrepant findings (see Fabbro, 2001 for a review). In this study, we explored the degree of overlap between the neural representations of Chinese and English, two languages that are different on orthographic, syntactic, and acoustic levels (Wang, Inhoff, & Chen, 1999). We examined conceptual processing in Chinese-English early bilinguals using a repetition priming procedure during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Repetition priming refers to an individual’s enhanced performance on a task as a result of repeated exposure to the same stimulus. On a behavioral level, this improvement is manifested as a reduction in response times and error rates. The underlying mechanisms of repetition priming effects have been well characterized by the theory of transfer appropriate processing (Morris, Bransford, & Franks, 1977). Briefly, the logic is that the processing involved during the first encounter of a stimulus may be transferred to the second encounter of the same stimulus, and the amount of benefit experienced during the second exposure is proportional to the degree of overlap in processing that is required by both exposures (see Roediger, Weldon, & Challis, 1989 for a review). In other words, the magnitude of the priming effect can be interpreted as an index of shared processes between the two encounters—the greater the overlap, the bigger the priming effect. In a series of behavioral experiments with monolingual English subjects, we have previously established that repetition of conceptual processing is both necessary and sufficient to produce a facilitation effect on a verb generation task (Thompson-Schill & Kan, 2001; see Zeelenberg & Pecher, 2003 for a bilingual study using a similar paradigm). In a verb generation task, subjects are asked to generate verbs (e.g., “eat”) in response to concrete nouns (e.g., “apple”). Furthermore, we have also observed a physiological priming effect (i.e., decreased blood flow) in an fMRI experiment using the same paradigm (Thompson-Schill, D'esposito, & Kan, 1999). Thus, this methodology seems ideal in the exploration of conceptual processing in bilingual individuals. If the concept “apple” were represented by different conceptual systems as a function of language, we would not expect activation of the concept in one language (e.g., Chinese) to facilitate processing of the concept in the second language (e.g., English). On the other hand, if the concept “apple” shared a common representation between the two languages, we would expect a facilitation effect in subsequent processing of the same concept, even when the processing occurred in a different language. We hypothesized that if Chinese and English do in fact share a common conceptual system, we should observe a behavioral cross language priming effect. Furthermore, if the neural representations of the conceptual system were overlapping, we should also observe a physiological priming effect in a population of neurons that are recruited for conceptual processing. On the other hand, if the two languages were subserved by distinct, and non-overlapping conceptual representations, we would not observe a cross language priming effect on a neuronal nor behavioral level.

Main Author: Kan, Irene P.
Other Authors: Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.
Format: Villanova Faculty Authorship
Language: English
Published: 2005
Online Access: http://ezproxy.villanova.edu/login?url=https://digital.library.villanova.edu/Item/vudl:177548
PID vudl:177548
id vudl:177548
modeltype_str_mv vudl-system:CoreModel
vudl-system:CollectionModel
vudl-system:ResourceCollection
datastream_str_mv DC
PARENT-QUERY
PARENT-LIST-RAW
PARENT-LIST
MEMBER-QUERY
MEMBER-LIST-RAW
LEGACY-METS
LICENSE
AGENTS
PROCESS-MD
THUMBNAIL
STRUCTMAP
RELS-EXT
hierarchytype
sequence_vudl_177547_str 0000000001
has_order_str no
hierarchy_top_id vudl:641262
hierarchy_top_title Villanova faculty author
hierarchy_parent_id vudl:177547
hierarchy_parent_title Kan Irene
hierarchy_sequence 0000000001
hierarchy_first_parent_id_str vudl:177548
hierarchy_sequence_sort_str 0000000001
hierarchy_all_parents_str_mv vudl:641262
vudl:172968
vudl:177547
first_indexed 2014-01-12T00:02:28Z
last_indexed 2021-04-12T19:20:07Z
recordtype vudl
fullrecord <root> <url> http://digital.library.villanova.edu/files/vudl:177548/DC </url> <thumbnail> http://digital.library.villanova.edu/files/vudl:177548/THUMBNAIL </thumbnail> </root>
spelling
institution Villanova University
collection Digital Library
language English
dc_source_str_mv ISB4: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Bilingualism, 1131-1139.
author Kan, Irene P.
author_facet_str_mv Kan, Irene P.
Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.
author_or_contributor_facet_str_mv Kan, Irene P.
Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.
author_s Kan, Irene P.
spellingShingle Kan, Irene P.
Conceptual processing in Chinese-English bilinguals: an fMRI study of cross-language conceptual priming.
author-letter Kan, Irene P.
author_sort_str Kan, Irene P.
author2 Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.
author2Str Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.
dc_title_str Conceptual processing in Chinese-English bilinguals: an fMRI study of cross-language conceptual priming.
title Conceptual processing in Chinese-English bilinguals: an fMRI study of cross-language conceptual priming.
title_short Conceptual processing in Chinese-English bilinguals: an fMRI study of cross-language conceptual priming.
title_full Conceptual processing in Chinese-English bilinguals: an fMRI study of cross-language conceptual priming.
title_fullStr Conceptual processing in Chinese-English bilinguals: an fMRI study of cross-language conceptual priming.
title_full_unstemmed Conceptual processing in Chinese-English bilinguals: an fMRI study of cross-language conceptual priming.
collection_title_sort_str conceptual processing in chinese-english bilinguals: an fmri study of cross-language conceptual priming.
title_sort conceptual processing in chinese-english bilinguals: an fmri study of cross-language conceptual priming.
format Villanova Faculty Authorship
description In recent years, functional neuroimaging and cortical stimulation methods have been used to explore neural organization of the bilingual brain, and one of the areas that has received considerable attention is the bilingual conceptual system. While some studies have provided evidence for distinct, non-overlapping representations between the first language (L1) and the second language (L2) (e.g., Kim, Relkin, Lee, & Hirsch, 1997), other studies have provided support for different, yet overlapping representations between the two conceptual systems (e.g., Illes et al., 1999; Klein, Milner, Zatorre, Meyer, & Evans, 1995; Klein, Milner, Zatorre, Zhao, & Nikelski, 1999). Factors such as age of L2 acquisition (e.g., Chee, Hon, Lee, & Soon, 2001), L2 proficiency (e.g., Perani et al., 1998), L1 literacy experience (e.g., Wang, Koda, & Perfetti, 2003), and L1 and L2 similarity (e.g., Gandour et al., 2000) have been proposed to explain these discrepant findings (see Fabbro, 2001 for a review). In this study, we explored the degree of overlap between the neural representations of Chinese and English, two languages that are different on orthographic, syntactic, and acoustic levels (Wang, Inhoff, & Chen, 1999). We examined conceptual processing in Chinese-English early bilinguals using a repetition priming procedure during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Repetition priming refers to an individual’s enhanced performance on a task as a result of repeated exposure to the same stimulus. On a behavioral level, this improvement is manifested as a reduction in response times and error rates. The underlying mechanisms of repetition priming effects have been well characterized by the theory of transfer appropriate processing (Morris, Bransford, & Franks, 1977). Briefly, the logic is that the processing involved during the first encounter of a stimulus may be transferred to the second encounter of the same stimulus, and the amount of benefit experienced during the second exposure is proportional to the degree of overlap in processing that is required by both exposures (see Roediger, Weldon, & Challis, 1989 for a review). In other words, the magnitude of the priming effect can be interpreted as an index of shared processes between the two encounters—the greater the overlap, the bigger the priming effect. In a series of behavioral experiments with monolingual English subjects, we have previously established that repetition of conceptual processing is both necessary and sufficient to produce a facilitation effect on a verb generation task (Thompson-Schill & Kan, 2001; see Zeelenberg & Pecher, 2003 for a bilingual study using a similar paradigm). In a verb generation task, subjects are asked to generate verbs (e.g., “eat”) in response to concrete nouns (e.g., “apple”). Furthermore, we have also observed a physiological priming effect (i.e., decreased blood flow) in an fMRI experiment using the same paradigm (Thompson-Schill, D'esposito, & Kan, 1999). Thus, this methodology seems ideal in the exploration of conceptual processing in bilingual individuals. If the concept “apple” were represented by different conceptual systems as a function of language, we would not expect activation of the concept in one language (e.g., Chinese) to facilitate processing of the concept in the second language (e.g., English). On the other hand, if the concept “apple” shared a common representation between the two languages, we would expect a facilitation effect in subsequent processing of the same concept, even when the processing occurred in a different language. We hypothesized that if Chinese and English do in fact share a common conceptual system, we should observe a behavioral cross language priming effect. Furthermore, if the neural representations of the conceptual system were overlapping, we should also observe a physiological priming effect in a population of neurons that are recruited for conceptual processing. On the other hand, if the two languages were subserved by distinct, and non-overlapping conceptual representations, we would not observe a cross language priming effect on a neuronal nor behavioral level.
publishDate 2005
normalized_sort_date 2005-01-01T00:00:00Z
dc_date_str 2005
license_str protected
REPOSITORYNAME FgsRepos
REPOSBASEURL http://hades.library.villanova.edu:8088/fedora
fgs.state Active
fgs.label Conceptual processing in Chinese-English bilinguals: an fMRI study of cross-language conceptual priming.
fgs.ownerId diglibEditor
fgs.createdDate 2013-01-22T06:35:26.036Z
fgs.lastModifiedDate 2021-04-12T19:04:34.064Z
dc.title Conceptual processing in Chinese-English bilinguals: an fMRI study of cross-language conceptual priming.
dc.creator Kan, Irene P.
Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.
dc.description In recent years, functional neuroimaging and cortical stimulation methods have been used to explore neural organization of the bilingual brain, and one of the areas that has received considerable attention is the bilingual conceptual system. While some studies have provided evidence for distinct, non-overlapping representations between the first language (L1) and the second language (L2) (e.g., Kim, Relkin, Lee, & Hirsch, 1997), other studies have provided support for different, yet overlapping representations between the two conceptual systems (e.g., Illes et al., 1999; Klein, Milner, Zatorre, Meyer, & Evans, 1995; Klein, Milner, Zatorre, Zhao, & Nikelski, 1999). Factors such as age of L2 acquisition (e.g., Chee, Hon, Lee, & Soon, 2001), L2 proficiency (e.g., Perani et al., 1998), L1 literacy experience (e.g., Wang, Koda, & Perfetti, 2003), and L1 and L2 similarity (e.g., Gandour et al., 2000) have been proposed to explain these discrepant findings (see Fabbro, 2001 for a review). In this study, we explored the degree of overlap between the neural representations of Chinese and English, two languages that are different on orthographic, syntactic, and acoustic levels (Wang, Inhoff, & Chen, 1999). We examined conceptual processing in Chinese-English early bilinguals using a repetition priming procedure during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Repetition priming refers to an individual’s enhanced performance on a task as a result of repeated exposure to the same stimulus. On a behavioral level, this improvement is manifested as a reduction in response times and error rates. The underlying mechanisms of repetition priming effects have been well characterized by the theory of transfer appropriate processing (Morris, Bransford, & Franks, 1977). Briefly, the logic is that the processing involved during the first encounter of a stimulus may be transferred to the second encounter of the same stimulus, and the amount of benefit experienced during the second exposure is proportional to the degree of overlap in processing that is required by both exposures (see Roediger, Weldon, & Challis, 1989 for a review). In other words, the magnitude of the priming effect can be interpreted as an index of shared processes between the two encounters—the greater the overlap, the bigger the priming effect. In a series of behavioral experiments with monolingual English subjects, we have previously established that repetition of conceptual processing is both necessary and sufficient to produce a facilitation effect on a verb generation task (Thompson-Schill & Kan, 2001; see Zeelenberg & Pecher, 2003 for a bilingual study using a similar paradigm). In a verb generation task, subjects are asked to generate verbs (e.g., “eat”) in response to concrete nouns (e.g., “apple”). Furthermore, we have also observed a physiological priming effect (i.e., decreased blood flow) in an fMRI experiment using the same paradigm (Thompson-Schill, D'esposito, & Kan, 1999). Thus, this methodology seems ideal in the exploration of conceptual processing in bilingual individuals. If the concept “apple” were represented by different conceptual systems as a function of language, we would not expect activation of the concept in one language (e.g., Chinese) to facilitate processing of the concept in the second language (e.g., English). On the other hand, if the concept “apple” shared a common representation between the two languages, we would expect a facilitation effect in subsequent processing of the same concept, even when the processing occurred in a different language. We hypothesized that if Chinese and English do in fact share a common conceptual system, we should observe a behavioral cross language priming effect. Furthermore, if the neural representations of the conceptual system were overlapping, we should also observe a physiological priming effect in a population of neurons that are recruited for conceptual processing. On the other hand, if the two languages were subserved by distinct, and non-overlapping conceptual representations, we would not observe a cross language priming effect on a neuronal nor behavioral level.
dc.date 2005
dc.format Villanova Faculty Authorship
dc.identifier vudl:177548
dc.source ISB4: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Bilingualism, 1131-1139.
dc.language en
license.mdRef http://digital.library.villanova.edu/copyright.html
agent.name Falvey Memorial Library, Villanova University
KHL
has_thumbnail true
THUMBNAIL_contentDigest_type MD5
THUMBNAIL_contentDigest_digest 203c69e18f4f46c81e9892448d2c07cd
THUMBNAIL_contentLocation_type INTERNAL_ID
THUMBNAIL_contentLocation_ref http://hades-vm.library.villanova.edu:8088/fedora/get/vudl:177548/THUMBNAIL/2013-01-22T06:35:28.017Z
relsext.hasModel info:fedora/vudl-system:CoreModel
info:fedora/vudl-system:CollectionModel
info:fedora/vudl-system:ResourceCollection
relsext.itemID oai:digital.library.villanova.edu:vudl:177548
relsext.isMemberOf info:fedora/vudl:177547
relsext.hasLegacyURL http://digital.library.villanova.edu/Villanova%20Digital%20Collection/Faculty%20Fulltext/Kan%20Irene/KanIrene-5ad4496d-8d5f-41f4-82a9-1a23f0899db2.xml
relsext.sortOn title
relsext.sequence vudl:177547#1
_version_ 1696863572672380928
score 13.921411
subpages