Leaf architecture, lignification, and tensile strength during vegetative phase change in Zea Mays.

Background and Aims: Leaf morphology, anatomy, degree of lignification, and tensile strength were studied during vegetative phase change in an inbred line of Zea mays (OH43 x W23) to determine factors that influence mechanical properties during development. Methods: Tensometer, light microscopy, histochemistry. Key results: Mature leaf length increased linearly with plant development, peaked at leaves 7 and 8 (corresponding to the onset of the adult phase) and then declined. Leaf width was stable for leaves 1 through 3, increased to leaf 7, remained stable to leaf 10, and then declined through leaf 13. Lamina thickness was highest for leaf 1 and decreased throughout development. Leaf failure load to width ratio and failure load to thickness ratio increased with development suggesting that changes in leaf morphology during development do not entirely account for increases in failure load. Histochemical analyses revealed that leaf tensile strength correlates with percent lignification and the onset of anatomical adult features at various developmental stages. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that in Zea mays lignification of the midrib parenchyma and epidermis may be directly correlated with increased tensile strength associated with phase change from juvenility to adulthood. Failure load and resultant tensile strength values are primarily determined by the percent tissue lignification and the appearance of leaf architectural characters that are associated with the transition from the juvenile to the adult phase. Increased mechanical stability that occurs during the phase transition from juvenility to adulthood may signify a fundamental change in strategy for an individual plant from rapid growth (survival) to reproduction.

Main Author: Balsamo, Ronald.
Other Authors: Orkwiszewski, Joseph.
Language: English
Published: 2008
Online Access: http://ezproxy.villanova.edu/login?url=https://digital.library.villanova.edu/Item/vudl:173958
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dc_source_str_mv Acta Societatis Botanicorum 77(3), 2008, 181-188.
author Balsamo, Ronald.
author_s Balsamo, Ronald.
spellingShingle Balsamo, Ronald.
Leaf architecture, lignification, and tensile strength during vegetative phase change in Zea Mays.
author-letter Balsamo, Ronald.
author_sort_str Balsamo, Ronald.
author2 Orkwiszewski, Joseph.
author2Str Orkwiszewski, Joseph.
dc_title_str Leaf architecture, lignification, and tensile strength during vegetative phase change in Zea Mays.
title Leaf architecture, lignification, and tensile strength during vegetative phase change in Zea Mays.
title_short Leaf architecture, lignification, and tensile strength during vegetative phase change in Zea Mays.
title_full Leaf architecture, lignification, and tensile strength during vegetative phase change in Zea Mays.
title_fullStr Leaf architecture, lignification, and tensile strength during vegetative phase change in Zea Mays.
title_full_unstemmed Leaf architecture, lignification, and tensile strength during vegetative phase change in Zea Mays.
collection_title_sort_str leaf architecture, lignification, and tensile strength during vegetative phase change in zea mays.
title_sort leaf architecture, lignification, and tensile strength during vegetative phase change in zea mays.
description Background and Aims: Leaf morphology, anatomy, degree of lignification, and tensile strength were studied during vegetative phase change in an inbred line of Zea mays (OH43 x W23) to determine factors that influence mechanical properties during development. Methods: Tensometer, light microscopy, histochemistry. Key results: Mature leaf length increased linearly with plant development, peaked at leaves 7 and 8 (corresponding to the onset of the adult phase) and then declined. Leaf width was stable for leaves 1 through 3, increased to leaf 7, remained stable to leaf 10, and then declined through leaf 13. Lamina thickness was highest for leaf 1 and decreased throughout development. Leaf failure load to width ratio and failure load to thickness ratio increased with development suggesting that changes in leaf morphology during development do not entirely account for increases in failure load. Histochemical analyses revealed that leaf tensile strength correlates with percent lignification and the onset of anatomical adult features at various developmental stages. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that in Zea mays lignification of the midrib parenchyma and epidermis may be directly correlated with increased tensile strength associated with phase change from juvenility to adulthood. Failure load and resultant tensile strength values are primarily determined by the percent tissue lignification and the appearance of leaf architectural characters that are associated with the transition from the juvenile to the adult phase. Increased mechanical stability that occurs during the phase transition from juvenility to adulthood may signify a fundamental change in strategy for an individual plant from rapid growth (survival) to reproduction.
publishDate 2008
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fgs.label Leaf architecture, lignification, and tensile strength during vegetative phase change in Zea Mays.
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dc.title Leaf architecture, lignification, and tensile strength during vegetative phase change in Zea Mays.
dc.creator Balsamo, Ronald.
Orkwiszewski, Joseph.
dc.description Background and Aims: Leaf morphology, anatomy, degree of lignification, and tensile strength were studied during vegetative phase change in an inbred line of Zea mays (OH43 x W23) to determine factors that influence mechanical properties during development. Methods: Tensometer, light microscopy, histochemistry. Key results: Mature leaf length increased linearly with plant development, peaked at leaves 7 and 8 (corresponding to the onset of the adult phase) and then declined. Leaf width was stable for leaves 1 through 3, increased to leaf 7, remained stable to leaf 10, and then declined through leaf 13. Lamina thickness was highest for leaf 1 and decreased throughout development. Leaf failure load to width ratio and failure load to thickness ratio increased with development suggesting that changes in leaf morphology during development do not entirely account for increases in failure load. Histochemical analyses revealed that leaf tensile strength correlates with percent lignification and the onset of anatomical adult features at various developmental stages. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that in Zea mays lignification of the midrib parenchyma and epidermis may be directly correlated with increased tensile strength associated with phase change from juvenility to adulthood. Failure load and resultant tensile strength values are primarily determined by the percent tissue lignification and the appearance of leaf architectural characters that are associated with the transition from the juvenile to the adult phase. Increased mechanical stability that occurs during the phase transition from juvenility to adulthood may signify a fundamental change in strategy for an individual plant from rapid growth (survival) to reproduction.
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