Internalization of Phosphotidylinositol-Anchored Lymphocyte Proteins.
Several proteins that are anchored to the surface of T lymphocytes via a phosphatidylinositol (PI) moiety can initiate cell stimulation upon cross-linking. Inasmuch as these proteins do not traverse the plasma membrane, it is not clear how they are capable of signaling across the membrane. Herein we report two distinct sets of experiments that examine the consequence of cross-linking PI-anchored molecules on murine T cells. We first analyzed the fate of antibody cross-linked TAP (Ly-6A.2) and Thy-1 molecules on T-T hybrids. Using an assay to measure receptor-mediated endocytosis, an intracellular accumulation of 12'1 labeled anti-TAP and anti-Thy-1 mAb was documented that was specific and Ag dependent. The internalization of these molecules was confirmed by cytotoxicity assays using antibody-toxin conjugates, and electron microscopic studies. Although the PI-anchored proteins lack a cytoplasmic domain that is necessary for the internalization of many receptors, they nevertheless can be induced to enter the cell upon cross-linking. The rate of entry of cross-linked TAP and Thy-1 into cells was shown to be 10 and 2% per hour, respectively, which is considerably less than that observed for the transferrin receptor or TCR/CD3 complex. To assess whether the internalization of TAP and Thy-1 might be of importance in their ability to stimulate T cells, we attempted to cross-link these molecules under conditions where the mAb or its cross-linked complex can not enter the cell. We observed that anti-TAP and anti-Thy-1 mAb conjugated to a cell impermeant matrix fail to stimulate T cells. This loss of stimulatory activity was observed with multiple T-T hybridomas and mAb over a wide titration of antibody concentration and was independent of the mAb isotype. Results from experiments with anti-Ig cross-linking of the mAb- PI anchored protein complex suggested that the loss of T cell stimulation upon mAb immobilization is not simply due to an alteration in the degree of antibody cross-linking. These findings were generalized to three distinct PI-anchored proteins: TAP, Thy-1, and Ly6C on normal T cells. When the same cells were stimulated through the TCR/CD3 complex, only immobilized mAb are stimulatory. These results demonstrate a marked difference in the cross-linking requirements for stimulating T cells through PI-anchored molecules in contrast to the transmembrane TCR complex. Furthermore, these findings raise the possibility that molecular internalization of Ab-PI-anchored complexes may be necessary in signaling through these molecules.
|Main Author:||Bamezai, Anil.|
|Other Authors:||Goldmacher, Victor., Reiser, Hans., Rock, Kenneth L.|