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FALVEY MEMORIAL LIBRARY
FALVEY MEMORIAL LIBRARY
Chambers's London Journal
Chambers's London Journal of History, Literature, Poetry, Biography, and Adventure, v. 2, no. 51, Ma...
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Chambers's London Journal of History, Literature, Poetry, Biography, and Adventure, v. 2, no. 51, May 14, 1842.
Blanchard, Edward Litt Leman.
11 October 2015
London: W. Strange ... W. Clements ... and G. Berger
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Disclaimer of Endorsement
i 2 l l i l l .north-the J “ BY EDUCATION MEN BECOME East? T0 LIAD, BUT DIHZICULT 1'0 DRIVE-EASY To COVERS, BUT iurossiatn ro Ei'si.Ave."-Loan nxcuauan. NUMBER 51. Turkey, Syria, and Egypt. Now that the Syrian war, in so far as the expulsion of Melleniet Ali is concornlad, iiiay he coiisidered as con- cluiled, we purpose to give ii historical synopsis of the causes which led to that event, and an outline of the policy by which the various parties have been actuated. These, being collated from different sources, will bear with them the authority on which they rest, andbe reu- dered as clear and consecutive as possible by the'coii- ns-cting links of our own observation. It is scarcely necessary for us to repeat the opii in we have on more than one occasion or ul, v that decay has at length overtaken the urk i empire, and that no di- ploniatic tinkering can presovt-it from itsinevitable fate. The only question, in our view, is, in W a anner can the peace of Europe, and the progress of civilization, be best secured amidst the ,disi-uptioii of the Ottoman sway? We believe we shall he able to show that the introduc- tion of the Jews, as mi iiidependont power, into Pales- tine, the extension of (ircr-ca to its ant-is-nt limits, and the restoration of the nationality of Poland,-three great events, the (‘DllSl1lIIlI)1)liOlI ofwhich shall adorn the era in which they are t‘Hlr‘Ctt.‘(l through all Iinie-are each iltely to grow out of the fall of 'l‘iu'l.ey The existence of Poland will be requisite, to keep ltnssio at bayou the , i-ejoiciiigat the fuldlinciit ofprnpliecy, will revolution: -I Il%l1‘l)I'PsPl)t‘!! the tribes of “ri and, while keeping Melimiiot Ali in Egypt, give to the whole borders of the l“PllilN'l‘.’.ulD:lII an impulse towards improvement in whicli the hand of llrovideni-c would he eminently visible-the cxpansioii of Greece towards the llosplioi-us would open to the adventurous energies ofthe pl-oplc oftliat country the fertile track of their ancient colonies now ling waste, and bring into the active service of man -ind the whole produce of the Levant and ASll‘i.‘lIllD1’, as well lisdisplaylo zinndniiriiig world the sublime spectacle of another of the ancient nations being recalled to life.’ These events are all plainly converging to one reiitrc-and the necessity wliich compels the one will equal commailll the el- fectuation of the others ‘ ‘ yet once more ext-rt ness and ties air-it is too probable that the l‘ltIl'0]Ie<'tIl powers, jealous of e;ich other, will again coalesce to kee down the events which struggle to have hirth‘hut the sword ofMaliomr-t, hai lost its force, tho daringness of the Saracen no longer (ligniiies his fury,and n hateof the Moslem dynasty, asactire as it is unquenchahle, lends its nervous influence to all the rebel liordes which now defy the governnimit of Islam. Wilt-n, within the last twenty years, the rsttcnness which long had prayed upon the Vitals of the Turkisli empire became evident on the surface, when the spotted leprosy of decay Sllrcuul itself lo the outward vision- when it was seen that limb by limb was torn away from the giant trunk without any attempt. at resistniir%tlie utter helplessiiess of the Sultan resolved iLIelt' into a proverb. When hlaliliiond. the late Seigneur, intro- duced, with deterniinzite violence, his European reforms aivhen he coiiipellad his soldiers to study modem Inc. tics, and his ministers to yield, in appearance, to the wants ofthe ople-when he came down from the, high estate of the euccr-ssor to Mnhomel, and, as such, viccgerent ofAllah, for the purpose of appearing as a mere human sovereign-as one over whom circ stances exercised control-the nlm fell from the eyes of the Turks, the fervour oozed from their temperament, the contidence which they blindly reposed in fate was broken into pieces, and they sat down helpless, pas- sionless, paralytic. At home. tliereforcy 518 well as abroad, the idea ofa mighty and resistless change spread its inlluenco; the inipoieuce resulting from perpetual childhood. from “. au'c prejudice and unimprovable habit, saw no help for the fatality of events. and the whole nation drooped into sluggishness, into the wild care- lessness of des air. When the rceka. by long and intrepid during, at S- to = 5.’ sA'rUnhiiY,iiiiAY 14, 1842. must be either one of extermination or iiillepenlleiice, the jealousy ever kept alive by the snialhvils of diplo- macy was aroused, in the fear that some one or other of the great kingdoms would take LlleinSlI1‘I'ECliDlllsLi under their peculiar protection, and b that means obtain a greater hold upon the fears, and a larger share of the dominion of Turkey. With a view, therefore, at once to preserve the balance of power among the leadinv nations, and to prevent Greece becoming a thoni intlie side of its oppressor, that state vras declared independ- ent of Turkey, but placed under the control of Otlio of Bavaria-under whose cowardly, selfish, and pur- poselcss policy no improvement can ever take place. at not alone was the dream of nationality to the Greeks the prevailing; so-nsrition of inquiring and hopeful inds: a vague but irrepres 'lill- idea spread uhroad that the disruption of the Turkisli empire was at hand, and that nothing noiv intervened to prevent the accu- pation of Palestine h the Jews. (irnd-ially that idea faded back into the l im realms of ancy, as the warlike powers of Europe intei-cliangu-ll doclaiutioiis of their in- tention to preserve inviolate the Ottoman dyiinsty,niid to put down all encroacluiienta on its territor '. When Melienict Ali rebelled agaimt the Sultan, and refused longer to cuutol the outrag lovin-v tribes of Syria, except on his own account, tlieiilcangiiiiircvirnd that the days of tli:-'l'urlr were iiumhi-rod, and that Pro- vidence would no longer be dela ed in its supreme purpose to fulfil the clierislir-d propliecics ofold. More on the. Continent than in linglzind did'thc chihlron of Judah cast their longing eyes towards Mount Sion ; yet even in this country a movement, ii licaviug up of hopes, an awakening ofdesires, (1i.‘<llI)‘l)t’tl the repose oftliedu-iv. ish ile. ‘on time, every thing tended lDWal‘(lR the realization of this idea; victory after victory attended the arms of Melinniet-the disturbances in Syria were putilown, while the Sultan was altogether unable to oppose the progress of his vassal : he iecaiue more alamred for the appearanceof lhrzihim at Constantinople than even he was when the Russians encainpod on the plains of Yarna. Once again, therefore, he bosought the good ollices of the litlropozltl powers, and by them was revolt arrested, and the bold Egyptian driven back to his African confines, Then was it thought by the over sanguine that they had been rash in their expecta- tions-that Turkey would yet suri-ivo, if not in active life, at least in that torpor which is even more fatal to the onward march ofcivilizatioii than the dread realities of war. Not a year, liowever, has elapsed: the Porto is more helpless than ever : Syria is again the theatre ofoutrnge: and the iilt'll gains ground that either anew and independent people must be planted in Palestine, or that it riiiist again be given up to the government of the Egyptian Viceroy. It is not likely that the pride of the European statesmen will permit them to adopt the latter alteniative, as they would thereby acknowlollge their former error; nor is it likely that so great, so ori- ginal, and so iniporlanta proceeding: as that involved in the restoration of the Jews will be adopted : diplomatic agencies are too mean, their views too narrow, their purposes too selfish, for the accomplishnient of so sub- lime a task. Sooner or later, however, but certainly, shall Turkey be blotted from the map of Eliropc-Syria shall cast edits vampire weight, and Egypt's struggles have been not altogether-rain, as the ancient tribes resume their independence, and prove that the lands of Phrrnicia, of Egypt, and of Greece shall yet be made worthy of the mighty races, which, in tha early ages of the world, sent forth knowledge as a stream from the opened dood- gates of intellect. lle it in this or during the next e- nerntiou, these events will speak with all the force of Scripture, proclaim the advent of peaceful eras, and haply introduce that wondrous tiuio wlieu war and discard shall be banished from the earth, and man dwell at peace with all his brethren fora thousant years. Ro- mantic as may he the thought, althougli we cannot deny that in this uul imagination toivenlbcyond our reasoning a 5 length convinced the cabinets of Europe that their state Na. in. Vol. H. faculties, yet do we cling to the glorious hope, and Pnici-1 Tnnnn Hanrrnxcn. rejoice when we read in the progress of adverse events 11 deterniinate approximation to the great result. Although Mehenict Ali has been subdued, and, like (ii-l-ore, confined in narrower limits, Turkey is not stionger, Syria not more pacified-no, nor the want of an inde- pendent leader-oi another Moses for Palestine, of another Theiuislocles for P‘ s-rendered lcss evident or imperative. We shall have ample occasion, during the detail of the stirring occurrences which liave lately shaken the East, to call attention to this fact. meantime, we content ourselves with an extract from ie li'estnu':ii1er Rm'ell-, containing a summary iici-(pint of the condition of‘ Turkey and of the state of SYRIA I-‘REVIOVJS ro rur. ocrrr ii-iox or nuii:un- All. An empire wliicli, some hundred years ago, was great, alarming, invading, C0nqIIl“I"iIIg, has, in the coursi- of irrislstihle events, been tottering to pieces. 'llu> Turkisli power, which was long the tenor of the Chris- tian world, has, under the weight of its own corruption: riniloppressioiis, been gradually sinking into lmlploas- ucss. Someprorinces have been wresml by ambitious neighbours, other have fallen into iincontrollcd anarchy ; some have become more deserts b llepnpulalion and decay; some have been emanoipate from the U.illlfll'Ili iutruderab the more vigoroiis hands of their iiativ:-' rat-on ; ivhi e others have been separated by iiegntiuliniia and protocols, though left seeiiiingly connr-cu-ll by the flimsy thread of dependence upon Ottoman sovereignty. “'hotevei' niaylillve been the policy, it has been the practice of the various states adjacent to the Turkish empire to seizeupon and to appropriate such portions asthcy could detach, and either to make them integral arts of their own dominions; or to break up the in- tluence of 'l'ui'ke,y by the establishment of independent governments, asin Greece, which boldly and at once tlirew all the Ottonian yoke--or, as in Wallnchia and Moldavia, of prolectorsliip,whicli more stealthily, but notless elfectually, l't‘lll0VD< it. n this course Iiugsixl has been by far the most vora- (‘ions of the vultures thlithare preyed upon the Ottoman carcase. France ias possessed licrselfot‘ no small share b ' seizing Algeria; Austria has crept, somewhat slug- gishly, but etfectively, down the Danubian provinces; and Great Britain, only the other day, for her own con- ventpcp, stole Allen, the most important Rt'J<]>0l’l of in. But suddenly, and as if by- magic, all these robber powers turn round, and gravely-aye, gravely--talk of “theindcpendenceand integrit of the Ottoman cm- This, as they tell us, is to he the foundation- this is discovered to be the only sound foundation for the future policy of Euro -" the integrity and inde- pendence of the Ottoman empire under the reigning dynasty.” [his isaprinciplc upon whic -Europe ‘ agreed; come storm, come sunshine, come darkness, come danger, come what will, for this we are to bargain, for this we are to fight, for this we are to be taxed, for this, if need be, we are to be mined. Would a wise man undertake to expose the maxima of folly which, under the name of wisdom, have, when adopted as rules for political guidance, been the cause of discord, delusion, and misery, he would render most acceptable service to the human race. “ Balanl-e.of power" is one of them-the pregnant. another of am- rhief, whose last begotten iinp is “the integrity and iii- dependence of the Ottoman empire." , We may remark, by the way. that there is in the words “ independence andantegrity of the Ottoman enipire,"as used by the allied powers, a bitter and a biting irony. Its independeiice consists in depriving it ofall freodoni of action; its integrity, in the destruction its provinces by its oving allies. When Turkey wished to make peace with Egypt, then the guzkrdinnq ofher independence insisted that she should have no such liberty.; when, taking the opposite view of thequestioii, -ct > 3 "E. 3 o "5 ' we believe nominally it was pmlnmi of . Sheik, hui uun who had no more right a. sell Allen nun Dovor. The we Iiriiml him to betray til: counlry, and line dcclarua Ind pm-ul themselves our innit deadly enemiu. V ‘- t-............<4.-.;:.....-..tv..t.-.a.. 2......-s,-w -........;.., -..-.,“...s..,..,