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. standard ; and now among all the German mineralogists,
of any reputation, I know of but one (Voigt) who still
maintains the old doctrine. XVe have seen how Klaproth,
whohad most opportunities of observing the effects of fire
on mineral substances, and has besides studied thehistory
of basaltic mountains, with that correctness for which he
is remarkable, has pronounced upon the subject. In
Ireland, Mr. Kirwan was a supporter of the volcanic doe-
trine ; but the numerous chemical experiments which he
made on minerals, and other considerations, led him to a
change. Dr. Mitchell, one of the best mineralogists, and
Professor Jameson, author of the Mineralogical Travels
in Scotland, and the greater part of the British naturalists,
consider basalt as having been produced in the humid
way. The celebrated geologist. of the Alps, Saussure,
found reason to yield, to a certain extent, to the Neptunian
theory; and Dolomieu, who was atthe head of the vol-
canists, but in whom the love of truth was paramount to
the spirit of party, admitted, that some basaltes ‘might
have been produced in the humid way.” pp .
Thus stands the question at the present day: a few
arguments, however, for the Neptunian theory, may be
added, to militate against a charge of partiality in deciding
in favour of the marine deity, without allowing our
reader sufficient opportunity of concluding for himself.
First, it is aclinowkdged, that in’ stones composed
of many ingredients, transitions or gradations are fre-
quently observed, from the more simple to the more
compound, or, vice vcrsd, &c. ; so that if any term of the
transition be volcanic, the whole graduating series must’
be of like origin ; and if, on the other hand,.any‘of the
terms be decidedly of Neptunian origin, the whole series