Transformation of the cryobehavior of rye protoplasts by modification of the plasma membrane lipid composition.
The freezing tolerance of protoplasts isolated from nonacclimated rye leaves (Secale cereale L. cv Puma) was significantly altered by using a pH-induced protoplastliposome fusion technique to modify the lipid composition of the plasma membrane. The increase in freezing tolerance was elicited by fusion with liposomes composed of either the total phospholipid fraction isolated from the plasma membrane of cold-acclimated leaves or single mono- or diunsaturated species of phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho). Of the PtdCho species tested, dilinoleoylphosphatidylcholine ([Lin2]PtdCho) and dilinolenoylphosphatidylcholine ([Lnn2]PtdCho) liposomes were the most effective; 1-pahnitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylcholine, 1-palmitoyl- 2-linoleoylphosphatidylcholine, or dioleoylphosphatidylcholine liposomes were somewhat less effective; dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine or dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine liposomes had no effect. The increased freezing tolerance was the result of a transformation in the cryobehavior of the plasma membrane during freeze-induced osmotic contraction. In control nonacclimated protoplasts, osmotic contraction resulted in endocytotic vesiculation ofthe plasma membrane which was irreversible and resulted in lysis during osmotic expansion after melting of the suspending medium. In nonacclimated protoplasts fused with mono- or diunsaturated species of PtdCho, osmotic contraction resulted in the reversible formation of exocytotic extrusions of the plasma membraneas normally occurs in protoplasts isolated from cold-acclimated leaves (acclimated protoplasts). In scanning electron micrographs, the morphology of the extrusions of nonacclimated protoplasts fused with [Lin2]PtdCho was virtually indistinguishable from that of the extrusions formed in acclimated protoplasts. These studies provide direct evidence that changes in the lipid composition of the plasma membrane are causally related to one facet of the cold-acclimation process.
|Main Author:||Steponkus, Peter.|
|Other Authors:||Uemura, Matsuo., Balsamo, Ronald., Arvinte, Tudor., Lynch, Daniel.|
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